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How to apply water soluble fertilizer scientifically

As a new environmentally friendly fertilizer, water-soluble fertilizer is easy to use, can be sprayed and applied, and can be combined with drip irrigation to improve fertilizer utilization, save agricultural water, reduce ecological pollution, improve crop quality and reduce labor. obvious advantage. Due to the high price of water-soluble fertilizers, China has not yet spread in large areas.
 
With the intensive and large-scale development of China's agriculture, the agricultural area of ​​water-saving facilities such as drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation is rapidly expanding, and the application prospect of water-soluble fertilizers will be very broad.
 
Gao Qichen
 
Choose more profitable crops
 
Water-soluble fertilizer not only has comprehensive nutrient elements, but also has quick fertilizer effect, and can obtain the expected effect in a short time after application; in addition, special fertilizers for different fertilizers can be produced according to the fertilizer characteristics of different crops, which are currently sold on the market. It is a special water-soluble fertilizer for various crops such as vegetables, fruit trees, flowers, grain, cotton, and oil. However, compared with solid fertilizers, the price of water-soluble fertilizers is much higher. Therefore, when selecting crops, it is best to target higher-yield crops such as strawberries, vegetables and fruits in order to obtain the best benefits; Lower, generally do not apply water-soluble fertilizer (except for spraying potassium dihydrogen phosphate on wheat).
 
At present, the actual application of water-soluble fertilizer production in China shows that this is also the case. The survey shows that the current application of water soluble fertilizer in China is mainly concentrated in greenhouse vegetable production bases, fruit tree production bases and some flowering areas such as Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Xinjiang, Sichuan, Guangxi, Yunnan and Hainan. Due to the short growth cycle of vegetables and high economic benefits, consumers have high requirements for the quality of vegetables, and the demand for fertilizers by vegetable farmers is also high. Water-soluble fertilizers have become the preferred fertilizer for vegetable farmers, and high-quality vegetables grown can sell at a good price. It brings high profits, so vegetables become the main consumers of water-soluble fertilizers. For field crops, because of their high cost, people are generally reluctant to invest, or only accept traditional fertilizer.
 
Combine the characteristics of water-soluble fertilizers to master fertilization techniques
 
Do not directly apply, take a second dilution method. Since the water-soluble fertilizer is different from the general compound fertilizer, it should not be applied according to the conventional method at the time of application, in order to avoid the phenomenon of burning seedlings and roots caused by uneven application of fertilizer; the second dilution is not only beneficial for uniform application of fertilizer, It can also increase fertilizer utilization.
 
Strictly control the amount of fertilizer applied. The water-soluble fertilizer has higher nutrient content than the general compound fertilizer, and the amount is relatively small. Because of its quick-acting effect, it is difficult to remain in the soil for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to strictly control the amount of fertilizer to avoid the loss of fertilizer, that is, to reduce the economic benefits of fertilization, and to achieve the goal of high yield, high quality and high efficiency.
 
Try to use it alone or in combination with non-alkaline pesticides. For example, when vegetables are deficient in deficiency or root growth is poor, many farmers use water-soluble fertilizers to alleviate them. Remind farmers that water soluble fertilizer should be applied alone or mixed with non-alkaline pesticides to prevent metal ions from reacting to produce sediment, causing leaf damage or phytotoxicity.
 
Reasonable mastery of usage and frequency
 
Generally speaking, the water-soluble compound fertilizer formula is more reasonable, the nutrient is more yuan, and the crop is more targeted. However, the unreasonable use in production can also cause waste of fertilizer and even negative effects.
 
Apply in small amounts multiple times. This is the most important principle for the application of water-soluble fertilizers, because this method not only meets the characteristics of uninterrupted absorption of nutrients by plant roots, but also the characteristics of water-soluble fertilizers that are easily lost. A small amount of multiple application can also greatly improve the utilization rate of water-soluble fertilizer.
 
Pay attention to nutrient balance. Water-soluble fertilizers are generally applied by pouring, spraying, or mixed into water, and applied with irrigation (drip irrigation, sprinkler irrigation). It should be reminded here that when using drip irrigation, due to the dense growth and large amount of roots, the dependence on soil nutrient supply is reduced, and more depends on the nutrients provided by drip irrigation. There is a higher requirement for a reasonable proportion and concentration of nutrients. If the formula is not balanced, it will affect crop growth. In addition, water-soluble fertilizer should not be applied with traditional irrigation methods such as flood irrigation or irrigation, to avoid fertilizer waste and uneven application.
 
Safely applied to prevent burns on leaves and roots. Improper application of water-soluble fertilizers, especially when applied together with sprinkler irrigation and micro-spraying, is prone to burning and burning roots. The root cause is that the fertilizer is too high in solubility. Therefore, in the concentration of fertilizer, it is necessary to strictly adjust according to the concentration of the specification. However, due to the different salinity of water sources in different regions, the same concentration occurs in burned leaves and roots in individual areas. The safest method of production is to find the appropriate fertilizer concentration in the region through the fertilizer concentration test.
 
Drip irrigation application precautions
 
Water-soluble fertilizer is applied along with drip irrigation and is the most common method in current production.
 
break off both ends. First, drip the water, add the fertilizer after the pipe is filled with water, to avoid the first stage without fertilizer; immediately after the end of fertilization, drip the water for 20~30 minutes, and discharge all the residual fertilizer in the pipeline (use the conductivity meter to monitor whether it is completely discharged); If you do not wash the tube, you may grow lower plants or microorganisms such as moss and algae at the dripper, block the dripper, and damage the equipment.
 
Prevent the accumulation of salt on the surface. Long-term use of drip irrigation in greenhouses or greenhouses will cause accumulation of surface salt and affect root growth. Under-film drip irrigation can be used to inhibit salt migration to the surface layer.